Topic 5 Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and minerals must be introduced with diet and don’t bring calories


Essential for the transformation of food into energy and for the regulation of metabolic processes.

∙(A, D, E and K): they can dissolve in fats (or lipids) and their intake is constrained by the presence of fats in our diet. They can accumulate in the liver and in the deposit lipids in order to be used when needed; however, they are the only vitamins that can give hypervitaminosis. They are found mainly in liver (cod liver oil…), milk, butter and eggs. Vitamin E is also present in broadleaf vegetables and oilseeds, vitamin A also in orange/red vegetables and fruit, while vitamin K in vegetables and meat, although for the most part it is produced by our intestinal flora.

(B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, B-7, B-9, B-12 and C): they are not stored in the body and are eliminated through urines. Vitamin C is found in many vegetables and fruit; it is a powerful antioxidant and is important for iron absorption and collagen production.

Source: Freepik


Functions Vitamins
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Thiamin
  • Riboflavin
  • Niacin
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • Biotin
  • Vitamin B12
  • Blood formation (and clotting)
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate Vitamin K                                  
  • Bone Health
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin C
  • Protein Metabolism
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin C
  • Folate
  • Antioxidants
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin C
  • Carotenoids
  • Riboflavin

Source Freepik


Inorganic substances

Regulatory and plastic functions

Are present in our body both in solid form (bones, teeth …) and dissolved in biological liquids.

  • Macro-constituents: present in high quantities
  • Micro-constituents: present in small traces, about 0.01%.

Food sources of minerals:

  • Calcium: yogurt, cheese, milk, salmon, leafy green vegetables
  • Chloride: salt
  • Magnesium: Spinach, broccoli, legumes, seeds, whole-wheat bread
  • Potassium: meat, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes
  • Sodium: salt, soy sauce, vegetables
  • Chromium: meat, poultry, fish, nuts, cheese
  • Copper: shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole-grain products, beans, prunes
  • Fluoride: fish, teas
  • Iodine: Iodized salt, seafood
  • Iron: red meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, green vegetables, fortified bread
  • Manganese: nuts, legumes, whole grains, tea
  • Selenium: Organ meat, seafood, walnuts
  • Zinc: meat, shellfish, legumes, whole grains

Source: Freepik