Many bacterial genes have been identified that have no correspondent in the human genome: mainly related to the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids and the biosynthesis of vitamins.
Symbiotic relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the human being:
The secret of a “healthy” (rich and varied) microbiota is:
Two groups of beneficial bacteria are dominant in the human gut: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes.
⮚The Westernization of the diet may reduce gut microbial diversity leading to dysbiosis, alteration of barrier function and permeability, and abnormal activation of immune cells, leading to high incidences of chronic diseases.
Food components have a key impact on the gut microbiota, influencing its composition in terms of richness and diversity:
🡪 A varied diet with abundant fiber and vegetable fats is linked to greater bacterial diversity, a lower concentration of pro-inflammatory molecules in the blood and increased synthesis of SCFAs.
The next step consists in modifying the bacterial flora for therapeutic purposes, through diet (prebiotic substances) and lifestyle or the administration of specific bacterial strains (probiotics).