Topic 3 Lipids


  • Stock energy of the body
  • Constituents of cell membranes and nerve sheaths
  • Precursors of hormones, bile acids, vitamin D
  • Carriers of fat-soluble vitamins


  • Triglycerides, main constituents of adipocytes.
  • Phospholipids, constituents of cell membranes and nerve sheaths.
  • Cholesterol, constituent of cell membranes, bile salts and hormones.

Source: Freepik

Lipids are made of fatty acids, categorized based on the length of the chain and number and position of any double links.

Some fatty acids are essential (need to be introduced with diet): linoleic acid (w6) and a-linolenic acid (w3)

Trans fatty acids: generated through a process of oil solidification, called hydrogenation (hard margarines, packaged products, french fries and fast food products).

Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated
  • Butter
  • Lard
  • Lard
  • Bacon
  • Sweets
  • Chocolate
  • Cheeses
  • Sausages
  • Palm and coconut fat
  • Margarine
  • Olive oil
  • Nuts
  • Blue fish
  • Dried fruit
  • Seeds
  • Seed oils

A diet high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids and cholesterol represents a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.