Topic 1 Attitudes and Behaviors of Parents towards their Children

There are different ways and attitudes that parents practice and adopt regarding what their children will be like, what kind of knowledge, moral values and behavioral skills they will have.

Common parental attitudes; The Democratic Dimension is the Authoritarian Dimension, the Permissive Dimension (van der Horst & Sleddens, 2017, pp. e0178149).

In addition to these dimensions, the Overprotective Dimension, which is not very common in Western culture and seen in the parents of our own culture, has been added (Soygüt, Çak, & Karaosmano, 2008, pp. 17).

  • expect mature behaviors from their children and when necessary, they should avoid sedentary life away from physical activity, such as not consuming unhealthy foods and spending a lot of time in front of the computer, TV, etc. asks them to follow the rules.
  • They are warm and interested, they listen to their children patiently, and they also take their children’s opinions on the decisions to be made within the family (Baumrind, 1966, pp. 22).
  • In the study conducted in the USA in 2013; stated that parenting with a democratic attitude is protective against obesity (Vollmer & Mobley, 2013, pp. 232-241).
  • In the research conducted in the Netherlands, the democratic dimension is parental style; had a positive effect on children’s fruit consumption (Rodenburg, Kremers, Oenema, &van de Mheen, 2012, pp. 12).
  • When the literature is reviewed, the democratic dimension of parenting in general; appears to be associated with a healthier childhood (healthy diet and active lifestyle) and lower BMI (Sleddens, Gerards, Thijs, de Vries, &Kremers, 2011, pp. 12-27
  • expect their children to obey and obey the rules unconditionally. When their children do not follow the rules, they punish and parents do not ask their children’s opinions on common issues, rather they expect their children to accept everything that is said without questioning (Baumrind, 1966, pp. 22).
  • The results observed in children raised with an authoritarian attitude can be listed as not being able to express their feelings and thoughts easily, insecurity, being anxious, introverted, following the rules when there is authority, but acting against the rules when there is no authority.
  • For example, these children do not consume too much fast food, internet cafes, etc. when their family is not present. They can be found in physical inactive behavior patterns, such as spending too much time in arcades.
  • In a study conducted in Malaysia in 2012; Excessive pressure and prohibition in parents were associated with higher BMI (Noor et al., 2012, pp. 47-55).
  • Kakinami et al; compared the children of authoritarian and democratic parents, and stated that children with authoritarian parents were 35% more likely to be obese in preschool and 41% in school age (Kakinami, Barnett, Séguin, & Paradis, 2015, pp.18-22).
  • give their children too much freedom, do not control them in any way, and sometimes act with tolerance that amounts to neglect.
  • Children raised in this way; They are seen as self-indulgent children with poor impulse control, low academic achievement (Baumrind, 1966, pp. 22).
  • If we explain with examples, these children may consume too much unhealthy foods such as fast food, due to the permissive behavior of their parents and their unrestricted behaviors, and may lead a physically inactive life such as spending a lot of time in front of the computer.
  • Permissive size parent style; It was found to be positively associated with appetizing food consumption and body weight (Rodenburg et al., 2012, pp. 12).
  • In another study; It has been observed that obesity occurs 3 years later in children of parents with permissive attitudes than in children of parents with democratic and authoritarian attitudes (Olvera & Power, 2010, pp. 243-249).
  • In the study of Langer et al.; It has been found that the time spent by children in front of television and computer games is more in families where the permissive dimension and authoritarian dimension are dominant (Langer, Crain, Senso, Levy, & Sherwood, 2014, pp. 633-642).
  • equates to excessive maternal care of children in terms of parenting attitudes.
  • The indicators of this in the mother-child relationship are grouped under 4 headings. These; excessive contact, infantilization, inhibition of social maturity, and excessive maternal control.
  • These children may not be able to gain awareness of the positive behaviors necessary for a healthy life (low consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast food and junk food, avoiding a sedentary life, living physically active, etc.) due to mother-child relationship indicators such as infantilization and poor social maturity, and due to their lack of self-confidence.
  • According to Hancock et al; Overprotective parenting style was not associated with the child’s weight up to 10 years of age. Although protection has been thought to be related to obesity or overweight until now, it has been mentioned that this effect may occur at later ages (Hancock, Lawrence, &Zubrick, 2014, pp. e100686).
  • In a study conducted in the USA; While parents set an example for their children to eat is associated with lower BMI, pressure or guidance about healthy eating is associated with higher BMI (Zhang & McIntosh, 2011, pp. 389-400).